Blackberry (lat. Rubus Rubus fruticosus) belongs to the genus Rubus (lat. Rubus) of the family Pink (lat. Rosaceae). The genus Rubus includes more than 300 species of plants, most of which grow in the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia, blackberry black-headed (Latin Rubus caesius), blackberry giant, or Himalayan (Latin Rúbus armeniácus), split blackberry (Latin Rúbus laciniátus) are found.
Blackberry is a shrub with shoots lying or rising up to one and a half meters in height. Shoots from blackberries are grassy, abundantly covered with small spines bristles. Under natural conditions, shoots grow so much that they form impenetrable prickly thickets.
The leaves of the blackberry are divided into three lobes, painted in a light green color, have lanceolate stipules and petioles covered with spikes. Hairy on both sides. The edges of the leaf are serrated.
The flowers are bisexual, five-membered, relatively large, up to 2-3 cm in diameter. They appear from June to August. They have pubescent green calyxes, white and less often pink petals. Flowers contain many stamens and pistils, almost equal to each other in length. Ovary is naked.
Fruits consist of a few black or black-red bones with large flattened bones. They are covered with a bluish coating and do not separate from the soft receptacle. The fruit tastes sweet and sour, juicy, fragrant.
Blackberries grow on the banks of streams and rivers, near marshes, in ravines and in humid forests. It is widely distributed in North America, the European part of Russia and Western Siberia, as well as in the Crimea, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus and Central Asia. In well-lit places it forms dense thickets. It is found not only in the wild, but also grown in personal plots.
Medicinal raw materials are the roots, leaves and berries of the blackberry gray. The roots are dug up in early spring or autumn, then cleaned from the ground, washed thoroughly, cut into pieces up to 15 cm in size and dried in a dryer. The shelf life of dried roots is 3 years.
The leaves are collected and dried throughout the summer, preferably during flowering. There are several ways to do this. The easiest way is to cut them so that the stalk remains do not exceed three centimeters, and dry them in the fresh air in the shade, in a well-ventilated room or in an oven at a temperature of about 50 degrees. Dried leaves should retain their natural color and not have brown spots.
Another way is to cut the leaves in early spring along with young shoots of the bush. Drying, as in the first case, is carried out in the shade or in a room with good ventilation. Leaves are left to bind, and then knead, moisten with water and wrap in a clean cloth. A day later, when the leaves are fermented and get a pleasant aroma, they need to be quickly dried and stored for storage in a dark place. Store dried leaves in a tightly closed container.
The fruits are consumed fresh or dried. It is desirable to collect fruits for drying in sunny weather in the morning. Unripe, overripe and spoiled berries are not suitable, therefore, first of all, they must be sorted, and then, if possible, cleaned from pedicels. The fruits should be dried first in the sun, and then in the dryer at a temperature of 70-75 degrees at the beginning and 45-50 degrees at the end. An alternative is to use an oven. Drying should begin at a temperature of 30-40 degrees, and finish at a temperature of 60 ° C. The shelf life of stocked fruits and leaves is one year.
The fruits of all blackberries are edible. They contain a huge amount of nutrients. The calorie content of 100 g of berries is 31-36 kcal (depending on the variety). There are no fats in blackberries, the amount of proteins reaches 1.5-2 g, and carbohydrates 4.4-7.4 g. Blackberries contain 88% of water, therefore it quenches thirst very well. In addition, it contains up to 10% sugars (mainly glucose and fructose). Organic acids, fiber and 0.7% ash are also present in the blackberry.
Blackberries are rich in vitamins, as well as macro- and microelements.100 g of berries contains 21 mg of sodium, 30 mg of calcium, 29 mg of magnesium, 1 mg of iron, 32 mg of phosphorus and in small amounts manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, etc. Up to 2 mg of B vitamins, up to 48 mg of vitamin C, 0.1 mg of carotene, 0.3 mg of vitamin E and 0.5 mg of vitamin K are found per 100 g of fruits. In addition, blackberries are rich in tannins.
Blackberry leaves are also rich in tannins (up to 14%), inositol and vitamin C. In addition, organic acids, flavonoids and traces of essential oil are found in them. Essential oil, resins, tannin, starch and tannins are present in the roots. Blackberry seeds contain about 12% fatty oil.
Individual intolerance to the components of dietary supplements and herbs.
To 2 tablespoons of herb, pour 300 ml of boiling water and then insist until the broth cools down. Drink 1/3 cup 3 times a day before food.